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Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease in which the airways in the lungs are damaged by infection, injury, or a disorder such as cystic fibrosis. In bronchiectasis, the airways lose the ability to properly clear out mucus. As a result, mucus accumulates in the airways, and they become vulnerable to infection and inflammation. This damages the airways, and as they are increasingly damaged over time, the walls of the airways become thickened.

The most common cause of bronchiectasis is cystic fibrosis, but there are many other conditions that can cause the disease. These include: